Serotonin (5-hydroxytyramine) is a mediator of gastrointestinal smooth muscle contraction, and is secreted by neuroendocrine neoplasms (NENs). We developed a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) assay for serum serotonin to be used in NEN diagnostics and follow-up. We used serum samples from healthy volunteers (n = 31) and patients suspected or monitored for NEN (n = 98). Serotonin-D4 internal standard was added to samples before solid phase extraction (SPE) and quantification by LC-MS/MS. The effects of sample handling and preparation on serotonin stability were studied. Finally, we established a provisional reference range for serum serotonin and compared our assay with serum 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) for detection of NENs. Our assay is sensitive and has a wide linear range (10-10,000 nmol/l). Serum serotonin is stable for 7 days at room temperature and for 3 months at -20 °C. Sampling temperature is not critical. Normal range for serum serotonin was 270-1490 nmol/l. We found that serum serotonin and 5-HIAA performed equally well as diagnostic tests for NENs. Our LC-MS/MS assay for serum serotonin is well suited for clinical research and patient diagnostics. Our results confirm that it can complement 5-HIAA in diagnosis of NENs.