To identify whether factors toxic to oligodendrocytes (OLs), released by B cells from patients with MS, are found in extracellular microvesicles enriched in exosomes. Conditioned medium (Sup) was obtained from cultures of blood B cells of patients with MS and normal controls (NCs). Exosome-enriched (Ex-En) fractions were prepared by solvent precipitation from Sup containing bovine serum and from serum-free Sup by ultracentrifugation (UC) or immunoprecipitation (IP) with antibodies to CD9. Ex-En fractions were diluted 1:4 with OL culture medium and screened for toxic effects on cultured rat OLs as measured by trypan blue uptake. Proteomic analysis was performed on Sup fractions. MS B cell-derived Ex-En fractions prepared from Sup by solvent extraction, UC, or IP induced OL death, whereas corresponding Ex-En fractions from NC showed little toxicity. Proteomic analysis of Sup demonstrated enrichment of proteins characteristic of exosomes from both NC and MS B-cell Sup. Ontology enrichment analysis suggested differences in the types and cargo of exosomes from MS Sup compared with NC, with proteins related to cell surface, extracellular plasma membrane, and gliogenesis enriched in MS. Much of the in vitro toxicity of Sup from B cells of patients with relapsing-remitting MS is found in Ex-En fractions, as confirmed by 3 methods. Proteomic analysis of B-cell Sup indicates multiple differences between MS and NC.