In this study, in order to investigate the effects of increased macrophage infiltration to radioresistant lung tumors in regulating natural killer (NK) cell-mediated immunity, we examined whether the treatment of radioresistant cells with conditioned medium (CM) from phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)/interleukin (IL)-4 treated THP-1 cells (used as a tumor-associated macrophage source) leads to the development of the additional resistance of tumor cells to NK cell cytotoxicity. We found that the susceptibility of THP-1 CM-treated radioresistant cells to NK cell cytotoxicity was decreased compared to the non-treated cells. In addition, it was found that such a decreased susceptibility was associated with increased programmed death receptor ligand 1 (PD-L1) and decreased natural killer group 2D (NKG2D) ligand levels in tumor cells. We further discovered that the THP-1 cells secreted a high level of IL-6, and that blocking IL-6 action by the addition of a neutralizing antibody (Ab) for IL-6 into the THP-1 CM decreased the resistance of THP-1 CM-treated radioresistant cells to NK cell cytotoxicity. Moreover, we discovered that MEK/Erk was the most critical IL-6 downstream signaling pathway in triggering the THP-1 CM effect; thus, the addition of MEK/Erk inhibitor to THP-1 CM enhanced the susceptibility of the THP-1 CM-treated radioresistant cells to NK cell cytotoxicity. On the whole, the findings of this study suggest the existence of a malignant loop characterized by increased macrophage infiltration into radioresistant cells which, in turn, promotes the development of the additional resistance of these cells to NK cell cytotoxicity.