Fungi can decompose plant biomass into small oligo- and monosaccharides to be used as carbon sources. Some of these small molecules may induce metabolic pathways and the production of extracellular enzymes targeted for degradation of plant cell wall polymers. Despite extensive studies in ascomycete fungi, little is known about the nature of inducers for the lignocellulolytic systems of basidiomycetes. In this study, we analyzed six sugars known to induce the expression of lignocellulolytic genes in ascomycetes for their role as inducers in the basidiomycete white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens using a transcriptomic approach. This identified cellobiose and l-rhamnose as the main inducers of cellulolytic and pectinolytic genes, respectively, of D. squalens Our results also identified differences in gene expression patterns between dikaryotic and monokaryotic strains of D. squalens cultivated on plant biomass-derived monosaccharides and the disaccharide cellobiose. This suggests that despite conservation of the induction between these two genetic forms of D. squalens, the fine-tuning in the gene regulation of lignocellulose conversion is differently organized in these strains.IMPORTANCE Wood-decomposing basidiomycete fungi have a major role in the global carbon cycle and are promising candidates for lignocellulosic biorefinery applications. However, information on which components trigger enzyme production is currently lacking, which is crucial for the efficient use of these fungi in biotechnology. In this study, transcriptomes of the white-rot fungus Dichomitus squalens from plant biomass-derived monosaccharide and cellobiose cultures were studied to identify compounds that induce the expression of genes involved in plant biomass degradation.