Toward understanding the mechanisms of vascular wall remodeling, here we have studied the role of NFATc1 in MCP-1-induced human aortic smooth muscle cell (HASMC) growth and migration and injury-induced rat aortic wall remodeling. We have identified PKN1 as a novel downstream target of NFATc1-cyclin D1/CDK6 activity in mediating vascular wall remodeling following injury. MCP-1, a potent chemoattractant protein, besides enhancing HASMC motility, also induced its growth, and these effects require NFATc1-dependent cyclin D1 expression and CDK4/6 activity. In addition, MCP-1 induced PKN1 activation in a sustained and NFATc1-cyclin D1/CDK6-dependent manner. Furthermore, PKN1 activation is required for MCP-1-induced HASMC growth and migration. Balloon injury induced PKN1 activation in NFAT-dependent manner and pharmacological or dominant negative mutant-mediated blockade of PKN1 function or siRNA-mediated down-regulation of its levels substantially suppressed balloon injury-induced smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation resulting in reduced neointima formation. These novel findings suggest that PKN1 plays a critical role in vascular wall remodeling, and therefore, it could be a promising new target for the next generation of drugs for vascular diseases, particularly restenosis following angioplasty, stent implantation, or vein grafting.