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Toshiaki Nagai et al.
Journal of analytical toxicology, 36(2), 96-105 (2012-02-18)
A method for identifying the enantiomers of N,O-di-trifluoroacetylated ephedrine (EP) and norephedrine (NE) and the enantiomers of pseudoephedrine (PEP) and pseudonorephedrine (PNE) in plasma was developed using chiral capillary gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) with selected ion monitoring (SIM). N,O-Di-trifluoroacethyl (TFA)
E Oyungu et al.
East African medical journal, 84(5), 219-225 (2007-09-26)
Khat is a plant whose young shoots and leaves are habitually used in Eastern Africa and the Arabian Peninsula as a drug of recreation. Although it is used without any control in these regions, it contains two controlled substances, cathinone
Hesham Abdul Aziz et al.
The journal of sexual medicine, 6(3), 682-695 (2009-01-16)
Khat (Catha edulis) is an evergreen tree/shrub that is thought to affect sexual motivation or libido. Its positive effect on sexual desire is more frequently observed in females than in males and occurs when khat is chewed. Thus, khat's effects
Tim Laussmann et al.
Forensic science international, 195(1-3), 160-164 (2010-01-06)
Hallucinogenic mushrooms (e.g. Psilocybe and Panaeolus species) as well as leaves and young shoots of the khat tree (Catha edulis Forsk) are illicit drugs in many countries. The exact concentration of the hallucinogenic alkaloids psilocin and psilocybin in mushrooms and
Osquel Barroso et al.
Drug testing and analysis, 4(5), 320-329 (2011-05-07)
Due to its stimulatory effects on the central nervous system, and its structural similarity to banned stimulants such as ephedrine and methamphetamine, pseudoephedrine (PSE) at high doses is considered as an ergogenic aid for boosting athletic performance. However, the status
Kuei Hui Chan et al.
Journal of analytical toxicology, 33(3), 162-166 (2009-04-18)
Sho-seiryu-to is one of the most common Traditional Chinese Medicine preparations for the attenuation of colds. Ephedrae Herba is one of the prescriptions of Sho-seiryu-to. The major ingredients of Ephedrae Herba, ephedrines, are banned substances on the World Anti-Doping Agency
Ying Shi et al.
Journal of chromatography. A, 1218(42), 7655-7662 (2011-09-09)
A method for simultaneous determination of eight adulterants including two appetite suppressants, two energy expenditure-enhancing drugs, one diuretic and three cathartics in slimming functional foods by high performance liquid chromatography with electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) was established. After samples
Raz Krizevski et al.
Journal of ethnopharmacology, 114(3), 432-438 (2007-10-12)
Khat (Catha edulis Forsk., Celastraceae) is a perennial shrub that was introduced to Israel by Yemenite immigrants. Khat young leaves are chewed as a stimulant. The main stimulating active principles in this plant are the phenylpropylamino alkaloids (-)-cathinone [(S)-alpha-aminopropiophenone], (+)-cathine
Hyeon-Kyu Lee et al.
The Journal of organic chemistry, 77(12), 5454-5460 (2012-05-25)
Each of the enantiomers of both norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine were stereoselectively prepared from the common, prochiral cyclic sulfamidate imine of racemic 1-hydroxy-1-phenyl-propan-2-one by employing asymmetric transfer hydrogenation (ATH) catalyzed by the well-defined chiral Rh-complexes, (S,S)- or (R,R)-Cp*RhCl(TsDPEN), and HCO(2)H/Et(3)N as
S A Adeoya-Osiguwa et al.
Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 22(3), 756-765 (2006-12-13)
Mammalian spermatozoa have been shown to have beta(1,2,3)- and alpha(2A)-adrenergic receptors, the former functioning only in uncapacitated spermatozoa and the latter only in capacitated cells. Cathine, an amphetamine-related metabolite of a compound found in Catha edulis leaves, accelerates capacitation and
John S Chappell et al.
Forensic science international, 195(1-3), 108-120 (2009-12-29)
A primary concern with the forensic analysis of the khat plant (Catha edulis) has been the need to preserve the principle psychoactive component, cathinone, which converts to the less-active substance, cathine, after harvesting. The loss of cathinone has serious legal
Carlos Castillo-Henkel et al.
Proceedings of the Western Pharmacology Society, 53, 33-36 (2010-01-01)
Here we contrast the vascular smooth muscle contractility produced by D-nor-pseudoephedrine, alone or combined with triiodothyronine, on the aorta and coronary vasculature of the rat. At high concentrations (greater than those found in normal therapeutic dosing) D-nor-pseudoephedrine contracted the aorta.
A Pokrywka et al.
International journal of sports medicine, 30(8), 569-572 (2009-04-22)
Pseudoephedrine (PSE) as a sympathomimetic is an ingredient of many proprietary medicines which are available on the medical market over the counter (OTC drugs). It can be converted to cathine (CATH, norpseudoephedrine) inside the body. Until the end of 2003
Sabina Strano-Rossi et al.
Therapeutic drug monitoring, 31(4), 520-526 (2009-07-03)
This article describes a method for the detection and quantitation of cathine, pseudoephedrine, ephedrine, and methylephedrine in urine, using their deuterated analogues as internal standards and derivatization to form the corresponding trimethylsilyl derivatives after a simple liquid-liquid extraction. The study
Richard Hoffman et al.
Journal of ethnopharmacology, 132(3), 554-563 (2010-06-18)
Although there is a rich body of research available regarding the effect of acute and chronic khat dosing in animal models, research on the behavioral and cognitive effects of khat in human subjects is not extensive and several of the
Susan A Adeoya-Osiguwa et al.
Human reproduction (Oxford, England), 20(1), 198-207 (2004-10-30)
Cathinone, released when Catha edulis leaves (khat) are chewed, has euphoric, stimulatory properties. It is metabolized to the phenylpropanolamines (PPAs) cathine and norephedrine. This study investigated whether PPAs affect mammalian sperm function, using primarily mouse, but also human, spermatozoa. Uncapacitated
Saba Kassim et al.
Journal of ethnopharmacology, 140(1), 193-196 (2012-01-17)
Khat chewing amongst the UK communities originating from Yemen and the East African coast is suggested to create dependency through its main stimulant components (cathinone, norephedrine and norpseudoephedrine) on the central nervous system. To validate self-reported khat chewing behaviours by
Li Huang et al.
Journal of AOAC International, 87(5), 1058-1062 (2004-10-21)
The use of a single internal standard (ephedrine-d5) as the basis for calculations of the concentrations of both the major and the minor alkaloids leads to incorrect results from variabilities in the solid-phase extraction (SPE) of the ephedra alkaloids. Because
Keep an eye on the pupil: developing countries under chemical attack.
Husni Al-Goshae et al.
Internal and emergency medicine, 4(3), 231-233 (2009-04-16)
Hao Hong et al.
Journal of natural medicines, 65(3-4), 623-628 (2011-04-06)
In the present paper, a fast and economical HPLC method [on a Phenomenex Polar-RP column with a solution of (phosphoric acid:triethylamine:dibutylamine:water = 0.40:0.1:0.2:499.3) and methanol] is developed, and applied for the determination of norephedrine, norpseudoephedrine, ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE) and methylephedrine (ME)
Sabina Strano-Rossi et al.
Journal of analytical toxicology, 34(4), 210-215 (2010-05-15)
This study was designed to optimize a method for the identification and quantification of ephedrines in oral fluid (OF) and for its application to subjects taking different doses of pseudoephedrine. Ephedrines use by athletes is banned by World Anti-Doping Agency
P Van Eenoo et al.
Journal of analytical toxicology, 31(9), 543-548 (2007-12-21)
For a correct interpretation of analytical results in doping control, knowledge on the stability of prohibited substances in the urinary matrix is a prerequisite. So far, limited data is available on the stability of prohibited substances in unaltered urine because
Veniero Gambaro et al.
Forensic science international, 217(1-3), 87-92 (2011-10-26)
In the last years, all the vegetable material supposed to belong to the Catha Edulis species, seized at the Malpensa and Orio al Serio airports, were analyzed in our laboratory on behalf of the Tribunals of Busto Arsizio and Bergamo
K Deventer et al.
Drug testing and analysis, 1(5), 209-213 (2010-04-01)
Until the end of 2003 a urinary concentration of pseudoephedrine exceeding 25 microg/mL was regarded as a doping violation by the World Anti-Doping Agency. Since its removal from the prohibited list in 2004 the number of urine samples in which
Kuei Hui Chan et al.
Biomedical chromatography : BMC, 19(5), 337-342 (2005-06-03)
A rapid and reliable high-performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of norephedrine (NE), norpseudoephedrine (NPE), ephedrine (E), pseudoephedrine (PE), methylephedrine (ME) and methylpseudoephedrine (MPE) in both a Mahwang traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) preparation and
T J Hilton et al.
Journal of dental research, 92(7 Suppl), 16S-22S (2013-05-22)
This practice-based, randomized clinical trial evaluated and compared the success of direct pulp capping in permanent teeth with MTA (mineral trioxide aggregate) or CaOH (calcium hydroxide). Thirty-five practices in Northwest PRECEDENT were randomized to perform direct pulp caps with either
Jian Ruan et al.
Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.), 19(11), 1190-1196 (2012-05-15)
This study aimed to analyze the distribution of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of testis-expressed 15 (TEX15) gene in the Chinese Han infertile men and fertile men. This case-control study comprised 309 infertile men with nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA, n = 199) or severe oligozoospermia
Yun-Sok Ha et al.
Urology, 79(6), 1411-1411 (2012-03-27)
To investigate RASSF1A expression in an attempt to understand the effect of RASSF1A in low-grade, nonmuscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC). A total of 101 tumor tissues and normal donor-matched adjacent tissues from patients with primary low-grade NMIBC were selected. RASSF1A expression
S Giebel et al.
Transplantation proceedings, 38(1), 287-291 (2006-03-01)
In a previous study we demonstrated that incompatibility regarding ligands for inhibitory killer immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) is associated with a survival advantage following unrelated donor-hematopoietic cell transplantation (URD-HCT). The goal of the present analysis was to evaluate whether genotype of
Tina Pirš et al.
Journal of medical microbiology, 62(Pt 9), 1478-1485 (2013-07-19)
A total of 188 human (n = 92) and animal (n = 96) isolates of Clostridium difficile of different PCR ribotypes were screened for susceptibility to 30 antimicrobials using broth microdilution. When comparing the prevalence of antimicrobial resistance, the isolates
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