Atomic spectroscopy uses the energy absorbed or emitted by electrons to identify and quantify the elemental composition of a sample. It includes various analytical techniques, such as AAS, AES, FAA, GFAA, ICP-OES, ICP-MS and XRF.
Reference materials are critical to method validation, calibration, qualification, and measurement of uncertainty. The proper selection of the reference material best suited for the testing application is vital, as results are only as accurate as the reference.
Gas chromatography is a common analytic technique used to separate and analyze volatile compounds in the gas phase. GC is applied in many industries for quality control, and to identify and/or quantify compounds in a mixture.
High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) can be used to separate and identify different large biomolecules such as protein and peptides in a sample. It is based on the pumping of a sample with a solvent (mobile phase) through a column packed with sorbent material (stationary phase) at a high pressure.
Small molecules are ions and compounds of molecular weight typically less than 900 daltons. These compounds can be effectively separated and analyzed by HPLC, UHPLC and LC-MS using mainly silica particles or monolithic stationary phases with a broad range of column chemistries (modifications).
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical tool used to identify compounds, determine chemical structure, and assess isotopic abundance. In MS, samples are ionized, and the resulting ions are identified based on their mass-to-charge (m/z) ratios.
NMR spectroscopy is an analytic technique to determine molecular structure, chemical composition and purity. NMR detects the energy absorbed due to nuclear spin states in the presence of a strong magnetic field.
Photometry measures the amount of an analyte in a sample solution based on the light absorbed. Reflectometry measures reflected light of a surface determining characteristics such as color to draw conclusions on e.g. analyte concentrations.
Thin layer chromatography (TLC) is a separation technique based on differential partitioning of compounds between a solid surface, coated with a thin layer of adsorbent, and a liquid solvent that moves over the solid surface by capillary action.
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