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Acute Tox. 4 Oral
13 - Non Combustible Solids
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Nifedipine can be dissolved in DMSO at 50 mg/ml1. It is sparingly soluble in absolute ethanol2. Herembert, T. et al., dissolved nifedipine in absolute ethanol (no concentration reported); the maximum ethanol concentration in cultures was 0.2% without any effect of solvent on the cells3. Nifedipine is soluble (g/L, at 20°C) in the following solvents: acetone, 250; methylene chloride, 160; chloroform, 140; ethyl acetate, 50; methanol, 26; ethanol, 17.4 It is practically insoluble in water. The solubilities at 37°C in buffer solutions of different pH values are: pH 4, 0.0058 g/L; pH 7, 0.0056 g/L; pH 9.0, 0.0078 g/L; pH 13, 0.006 g/L1. References: 1. Ali, S.L., Analytical Profiles of Drug Substances, 18, 221, (1989). 2. Martindale, The Extra Pharmacopoeia, 30th ed., 374, (1993). and 3. Herembert, T. et al. Brit. J. Pharmacol., 114, 1703, (1995).
Nifedipine is reported to inhibit Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels at 100 μM1. Doses for different animals have been reported2,3. In randomly growing cultures of aortic cells of rats, nifedipine at 10 μM inhibited cell proliferation. References: 1. Thomas-Young, R.J. et al. Biochim. Biophys. Acta, 1146, 81, (1993). 2. Drug Dosages In Laboratory Animals: A Handbook, 3rd ed., Telford Press. and 3. Borchard, R.E. et al. Drug Dosage in Laboratory Animals, A Handbook, Third Edition, p. 315, The Telford Press, (1990).
After administration by the mouth, the half-life is 2 to 5 hours 1. In plasma, about 92-98% binds to plasma proteins. Nifedipine is completely metabolized. About 70% of a dose is excreted in the urine in 24 hours as metabolites including 5-methoxycarbonyl-2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid; dimethyl 2,6-dimethyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl pyridine-3,5-dicarboxylate and 2-hydroxymethyl-5-methoxycarbonyl-6-methyl-4-(2-nitrophenyl) pyridine-3-carboxylic acid and its lactone derivative. Up to 15% of a dose is eliminated in the feces as metabolites in 4 days 2. References: 1. Martindale, 29th ed., pgs. 1509-1513. 2. Clarke's Isolation and Identification of Drugs., 2nd ed., p. 811.
When exposed to daylight and certain wavelengths of artificial light, nifedipine readily converts to a nitrosophenylpyridine derivative. Exposure to ultra-violet light leads to the formation of a nitrophenylpyridine derivative. Therefore, USP recommends that assays be performed in the dark or under golden fluorescent or other low actinic light. Low actinic glassware should be used1.
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Cyclic nucleotides, including cyclic AMP (cAMP), cyclic GMP (cGMP) and cyclic ADP-ribose, have been extensively studied as second messengers of intracellular events initiated by activation of GPCRs. cAMP modifies cell function in all eukaryotic cells, principally through the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), but also through cAMP-gated ion channels and guanine nucleotide exchange factors directly activated by cAMP.
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