Analytical Standards and SupelMIP® SPE Cartridges
The mycotoxin patulin is often found in rotten apples. It is mostly produced by Aspergillus, Penicillium and Byssochlamys and shows a variety of short-term and long-term effects in animal studies, ranging from gastrointestinal problems and neurotoxicity to genotoxicity and teratogenicity. Therefore, many countries set limits for patulin content in apple products. For a precise detection of patulin, we offer SPE cartridges for purification and a comprehensive range of analytical standards.
Historically, analytical methods for patulin have employed liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) followed by HPLC separation with UV detection at 276 nm. Researchers have highlighted problems with these methodologies, including:
Therefore, a quick, simple and robust sample preparation method for patulin analysis is needed. To propose an accurate solution, Supelco has developed a method based on the technology of molecularly imprinted polymers. These SupelMIP® SPE Patulin extraction cartridges selectively clean and concentrate patulin prior to analysis by HPLC.
The process to extract patulin from apple juice is described below.
This MIP-phase SPE procedure yielded high analyte recovery with excellent reproducibility. The average recovery of patulin was calculated to be 84% with a relative standard deviation (RSD) of 2%. As seen in Figure 1, chromatographic analysis showed that no direct interferences with patulin detection were observed. Unlike LLE procedures, the clean-up procedure using SupelMIP® SPE Patulin successfully removed HMF and other common interfering components from the final extract. As a result, patulin was easily detectable in apple juice at concentrations of 50 ng/mL.
Figure 1.Chromatogram of apple juice after SPE clean-up
(a) spiked at 50 ng/mL with patulin and
(b) with no patulin spike.
Column: Ascentis® Express C18, 15 cm x 2.1 mm, 2.7 µm particles (53825-U); Mobile Phase: (A) 95:5 water:acetonitrile; (B) 100% acetonitrile; Gradient: Hold at 100% A for 6 min; 0% to 80% B in 0.1 min; hold at 80% B for 3 min, 80% to 0% B in 0.1 min, hold at 100% A for 13 min; Flow Rate: 0.2 mL/min.; Column Temp.: 30 °C; Detector: UV (276 nm); Injection: 10 µL
Analytical Standards for Mycotoxin Analysis
For precise quality control of patulin in food and feed, we provide our customers with analytical neat standards and standard solutions. We also offer a stable, non- radioactive fully 13C–isotopically labeled version of patulin, with the same physiochemical and chromatographic behaviors (Figure 2). This internal standard accounts for variations during sample preparation, clean-up and ionization.
Figure 2.Molecular Structure of Patulin
SupelMIP and Ascentis are registered trademarks of Sigma-Aldrich Co. LLC.