Merck

Low-Toxicity Diindol-3-ylmethanes as Potent Antifouling Compounds.

Marine biotechnology (New York, N.Y.) (2015-08-05)
Kai-Ling Wang, Ying Xu, Liang Lu, Yongxin Li, Zhuang Han, Jun Zhang, Chang-Lun Shao, Chang-Yun Wang, Pei-Yuan Qian
ABSTRACT

In the present study, eight natural products that belonged to di(1H-indol-3-yl)methane (DIM) family were isolated from Pseudovibrio denitrificans UST4-50 and tested for their antifouling activity against larval settlement (including both attachment and metamorphosis) of the barnacle Balanus (=Amphibalanus) amphitrite and the bryozoan Bugula neritina. All diindol-3-ylmethanes (DIMs) showed moderate to strong inhibitory effects against larval settlement of B. amphitrite with EC50 values ranging from 18.57 to 1.86 μM and could be considered as low-toxicity antifouling compounds since their LC50/EC50 ratios were larger than 15. Furthermore, the DIM- and 4-(di(1H-indol-3-yl)methyl)phenol (DIM-Ph-4-OH)-treated larvae completed normal settlement when they were transferred to clean seawater after being exposed to those compounds for 24 h. DIM also showed comparable antifouling performance to the commercial antifouling biocide Sea-Nine 211(™) in the field test over a period of 5 months, which further confirmed that DIMs can be considered as promising candidates of environmentally friendly antifouling compounds.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, JIS 300, ≥99.0%, for residue analysis
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, JIS special grade, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, SAJ super special grade, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, SAJ first grade, ≥99.0%, contains 0.4-0.8% ethanol
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, for residue analysis, JIS 5000
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, suitable for HPLC
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, "100%", 99.96 atom % D, contains 0.03 % (v/v) TMS
Supelco
Chloroform, suitable for HPLC, ≥99.8%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, 99.9 atom % D, contains 0.03 % (v/v) TMS
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, anhydrous, contains amylenes as stabilizer, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%, contains amylenes as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, anhydrous, ≥99%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, 99.9 atom % D, contains 1 % (v/v) TMS
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, 99.9 atom % D
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, 99.5 atom % D
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, ACS reagent, ≥99.8%, contains 0.5-1.0% ethanol as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, "100%", 99.96 atom % D
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, "100%", 99.96 atom % D
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, anhydrous, 99.9 atom % D
Sigma-Aldrich
Chloroform, ≥99%, PCR Reagent, contains amylenes as stabilizer
Sigma-Aldrich
Dimethyl sulfoxide-d6, "100%", 99.96 atom % D