Inflammation plays a crucial role in tissue regeneration, wound healing, and the success of tissue-engineered constructs. The aim of this study was to investigate the influence of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (ECs) on leukocyte transmigration when co-cultured with primary human bone marrow-derived multipotent stromal cells (MSCs). MSCs with and without ECs were cultured in poly (L-lactide-co-1, 5-dioxepan-2-one) (poly (LLA-co-DXO)) scaffolds for 1 week in vitro in a bioreactor system, after which they were implanted subcutaneously in non-obese diabetic/severe combined immunodeficient mice. After 1 and 3 weeks, scaffolds were retrieved, and the mRNA expression of interleukin 1-beta (IL-1β), IL-6, IL-10, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha (HIF-1α), HIF-1β, and mammalian target of rapamycin was examined by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Furthermore, immunofluorescent staining was performed for IL-1β, IL-6, neutrophils, and CD11b. In addition, Western blotting was done for IL-1β and IL-6. Leukocyte transmigration genes and genes in Toll-like receptor pathways, expressed by MSCs cultured in vitro with or without ECs, were further investigated with a microarray dataset. In vitro, genes involved in leukocyte transmigration and Toll-like receptor pathways were clearly influenced by the addition of ECs. Platelet/endothelial cell adhesion molecule-1 (PECAM-1) and cadherin-5 (CDH5), both genes involved in leukocyte transmigration, were expressed significantly higher in the MSC/EC group. The recruitment of leukocytes into tissue-engineered constructs with MSCs is strongly influenced by the addition of ECs via activation of leukocyte transmigration and Toll-like receptor pathways.