We have previously shown that the expression of voltage-operated Ca(++) channels (VOCCs) is highly regulated in the oligodendroglial lineage and is essential for proper oligodendrocyte progenitor cell (OPC) migration. Here we assessed the role of VOCCs, in particular the L-type, in oligodendrocyte maturation. We used pharmacological treatments to activate or block voltage-gated Ca(++) uptake and siRNAs to specifically knock down the L-type VOCC in primary cultures of mouse OPCs. Activation of VOCCs by plasma membrane depolarization increased OPC morphological differentiation as well as the expression of mature oligodendrocyte markers. On the contrary, inhibition of L-type Ca(++) channels significantly delayed OPC development. OPCs transfected with siRNAs for the Cav1.2 subunit that conducts L-type Ca(++) currents showed reduce Ca(++) influx by ~75% after plasma membrane depolarization, indicating that Cav1.2 is heavily involved in mediating voltage-operated Ca(++) entry in OPCs. Cav1.2 knockdown induced a decrease in the proportion of oligodendrocytes that expressed myelin proteins, and an increase in cells that retained immature oligodendrocyte markers. Moreover, OPC proliferation, but not cell viability, was negatively affected after L-type Ca(++) channel knockdown. Additionally, we have tested the ability of L-type VOCCs to facilitate axon-glial interaction during the first steps of myelin formation using an in vitro co-culture system of OPCs with cortical neurons. Unlike control OPCs, Cav1.2 deficient oligodendrocytes displayed a simple morphology, low levels of myelin proteins expression and appeared to be less capable of establishing contacts with neurites and axons. Together, this set of in vitro experiments characterizes the involvement of L-type VOCCs on OPC maturation as well as the role played by these Ca(++) channels during the early phases of myelination.