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Antimicrobial activity of natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario, Canada.

Pharmaceutical biology (2015-02-24)
Janique Vandal, Mamdouh M Abou-Zaid, Garry Ferroni, Leo G Leduc
ABSTRACT

The number of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms is increasing and the antimicrobial resistance expressed by these pathogens is generating a rising global health crisis. In fact, there are only a few antimicrobial agents left that can be used against MDR bacteria and fungi. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of selected natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario against selected microorganisms are reported. Plants were collected from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and ethanol extracts were prepared using EtOH:H2O (1:1, v/v). Fungal cultures used in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. Bacterial cultures employed included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 11758, and Streptococcus lactis ATCC 19435. The microplate resazurin assay was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. Extracts of four plant species Chimaphila umbellata L. (Pyrolaceae), Betula papyrifera Marshall (Betulaceae), Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), and six compounds (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid) demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activities with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, respectively, for a chemical fraction of an extract from Betula papyrifera against the bacterium S. aureus. The present study has shown that certain plant extracts and select fractions and standard chemical compounds exhibit antimicrobial effects. Prince's Pine, Chimaphila umbellate, White Birch, Betula papyrifera, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, and Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica were the principal extracts exhibiting notable antibacterial and/or antifungal activities; while gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and caffeic acid demonstrated antibacterial activities and sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid demonstrated antifungal activities.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
m-Coumaric acid, analytical standard
Ferulic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, ACS reagent, prima fine spirit, without additive, F15 o1
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, purum, fine spirit, denaturated with 4.8% methanol, F25 METHYL1, ~96% (based on denaturant-free substance)
Supelco
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 200 proof, meets USP testing specifications
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, anhydrous, dist., ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ReagentPlus®, ≥99.0% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, BioXtra, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for electrophoresis, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Caffeic acid, ≥98.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Gallic acid, 97.5-102.5% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E210, 99.5-100.5% (alkalimetric)
Sigma-Aldrich
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, ≥97.0% (T)
Supelco
Benzoic acid, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, ≥99.5%
Supelco
Caffeic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.0% (HPLC), powder, light beige
Supelco
Caffeic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Supelco
trans-Ferulic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Supelco
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, analytical standard
Protocatechuic acid, primary reference standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, absolute, denaturated with 0.5-1.5 Vol.% 2-butanone and approx. 0.001% Bitrex (GC), ≥98% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, puriss., meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E422, anhydrous, 99.0-101.0% (alkalimetric)
Benzoic acid, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Glycerol, analytical standard
Supelco
Benzoic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Melting point standard 121-123°C, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethanol, JIS 1000, ≥99.5%, for residue analysis