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Antimicrobial activity of natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario, Canada.

Pharmaceutical biology (2015-02-24)
Janique Vandal, Mamdouh M Abou-Zaid, Garry Ferroni, Leo G Leduc
ABSTRACT

The number of multidrug resistant (MDR) microorganisms is increasing and the antimicrobial resistance expressed by these pathogens is generating a rising global health crisis. In fact, there are only a few antimicrobial agents left that can be used against MDR bacteria and fungi. In this study, the antimicrobial activities of selected natural products from the flora of Northern Ontario against selected microorganisms are reported. Plants were collected from Sault Ste. Marie, Ontario, Canada, and ethanol extracts were prepared using EtOH:H2O (1:1, v/v). Fungal cultures used in this study were Candida albicans ATCC 10231 and Schizosaccharomyces octosporus. Bacterial cultures employed included Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 29213, Escherichia coli ATCC 25922, Pseudomonas aeruginosa ATCC 27853, Mycobacterium phlei ATCC 11758, and Streptococcus lactis ATCC 19435. The microplate resazurin assay was used to screen for antimicrobial activity. Extracts of four plant species Chimaphila umbellata L. (Pyrolaceae), Betula papyrifera Marshall (Betulaceae), Rhus typhina L. (Anacardiaceae), and Fraxinus pennsylvanica Marshall (Oleaceae), and six compounds (gallic acid, ethyl gallate, caffeic acid, sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid) demonstrated antibacterial or antifungal activities with MICs ranging from 62.5 to 1000 µg/mL, respectively, for a chemical fraction of an extract from Betula papyrifera against the bacterium S. aureus. The present study has shown that certain plant extracts and select fractions and standard chemical compounds exhibit antimicrobial effects. Prince's Pine, Chimaphila umbellate, White Birch, Betula papyrifera, Staghorn Sumac, Rhus typhina, and Green Ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica were the principal extracts exhibiting notable antibacterial and/or antifungal activities; while gallic acid, ethyl gallate, and caffeic acid demonstrated antibacterial activities and sinapic acid, gentisic acid, and chlorogenic acid demonstrated antifungal activities.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Benzoic acid, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Supelco
Melting point standard 121-123°C, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, SAJ first grade, ≥98.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, BioXtra, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Gallic acid, 97.5-102.5% (titration)
Sigma-Aldrich
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Ethyl alcohol, Pure, 190 proof, ACS spectrophotometric grade, 95.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
2,6-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, 98%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, FCC, E210, 99.5-100.5% (alkalimetric)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, purified by sublimation, ≥99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, natural, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, ≥99.5%, FCC, FG
Sigma-Aldrich
trans-Ferulic acid, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, BioReagent, suitable for cell culture, suitable for insect cell culture, suitable for electrophoresis, ≥99% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, for molecular biology, ≥99.0%
Supelco
Caffeic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.0% (HPLC), powder, light beige
Sigma-Aldrich
3,4-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, ≥97.0% (T)
Supelco
Benzoic acid, certified reference material for titrimetry, certified by BAM, ≥99.5%
Supelco
2,5-Dihydroxybenzoic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, >99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, reag. Ph. Eur., ≥99.9% (alkalimetric)
Sigma-Aldrich
2-Hydroxycinnamic acid, predominantly trans, 97%
Sigma-Aldrich
Benzoic acid, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Supelco
trans-Ferulic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, tested according to Ph. Eur., anhydrous
Sigma-Aldrich
Glycerol, BioUltra, for molecular biology, anhydrous, ≥99.5% (GC)
Supelco
Caffeic acid, matrix substance for MALDI-MS, ≥99.0% (HPLC)
Sigma-Aldrich
Caffeic acid, ≥98.0% (HPLC)