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Intravenous acetaminophen and intravenous ketorolac for management of pediatric surgical pain: a literature review.

AANA journal (2014-03-25)
Kit Baley, Kara Michalov, Mark A Kossick, Mason McDowell
ABSTRACT

Pediatric surgical patients are a population at risk of inadequate pain management. The American Society of Anesthesiologists' 2012 Practice Guidelines for Acute Pain Management in the Perioperative Setting recommend a multimodal approach as the most effective way to prevent and treat pain in children. A multimodal approach entails the use of 2 or more analgesic medications that act by different mechanisms, to maximally target a variety of pain receptors and reduce the potential for side effects. One method for incorporating a multimodal approach is to augment intravenous (IV) opioids with nonopioid IV analgesics. Ketorolac and acetaminophen are the 2 nonopioid IV analgesics currently available for use in the United States. This article provides a review of the literature of IV ketorolac and IV acetaminophen regarding their pharmacology, analgesic efficacy, limitations, and practical considerations, with a focus on patients 16 years of age and younger.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Supelco
Acetaminophen, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaminophen, BioXtra, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaminophen, meets USP testing specifications, 98.0-102.0%, powder
Sigma-Aldrich
Acetaminophen, analytical standard
Paracetamol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
USP
Acetaminophen, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Supelco
Acetaminophen solution, 1.0 mg/mL in methanol, ampule of 1 mL, certified reference material, Cerilliant®