A general method to analyze the structure of a supramolecular complex of amyloid fibrils at amino acid residue resolution has been developed. This method combines the NMR-detected hydrogen/deuterium (H/D) exchange technique to detect hydrogen-bonded amide groups and the ability of the aprotic organic solvent dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) to dissolve amyloid fibrils into NMR-observable, monomeric components while suppressing the undesired H/D exchange reaction. Moreover, this method can be generally applied to amyloid fibrils to elucidate the distribution of hydrogen-bonded amino acid residues in the three-dimensional molecular organization in the amyloid fibrils. In this study, we describe theoretical considerations in the H/D exchange method to obtain the structural information of proteins, and the DMSO-quenched H/D exchange method to study a supramolecular complex of amyloid fibrils. A possible application of this method to study the interaction of a protein/peptide with phospholipid membrane is also discussed.