Merck

Recognition, treatment, and prevention of propylene glycol toxicity.

Seminars in dialysis (2007-06-09)
Tausif Zar, Charles Graeber, Mark A Perazella
ABSTRACT

Propylene glycol is a commonly used solvent for oral, intravenous, and topical pharmaceutical preparations. Although it is considered safe, large intravenous doses given over a short period of time can be toxic. Underlying renal insufficiency and hepatic dysfunction raise risk for toxicity. Toxic effects include hyperosmolality, increased anion gap metabolic acidosis (due to lactic acidosis), acute kidney injury, and sepsis-like syndrome. Treatment of toxicity includes hemodialysis to effectively remove propylene glycol. Prevention is best achieved by limiting the dose of propylene glycol infused.

MATERIALS
Product Number
Brand
Product Description

Sigma-Aldrich
Propylene glycol, FCC, FG
Supelco
Propylene glycol, Pharmaceutical Secondary Standard; Certified Reference Material
Sigma-Aldrich
Propylene Glycol, meets USP testing specifications
USP
Propylene glycol, United States Pharmacopeia (USP) Reference Standard
Propylene glycol, European Pharmacopoeia (EP) Reference Standard
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, SAJ special grade, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, SAJ first grade, ≥99.0%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, ACS reagent, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, ReagentPlus®, 99%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, meets analytical specification of Ph. Eur., BP, USP, ≥99.5%
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, puriss. p.a., ACS reagent, ≥99.5% (GC)
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, tested according to Ph. Eur.
Supelco
1,2-Propanediol, analytical standard
Sigma-Aldrich
1,2-Propanediol, LR, ≥99%