EP4 expression in human glioblastoma cells correlates with growth on soft agar. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor sulindac sulfide first altered specificity protein-1 (Sp-1) and early growth response gene-1 expression, then increased the expression of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 and activating transcription factor 3, and then decreased EP4 expression. EP4 suppression was dependent on blocking the Sp-1 binding sites in the human EP4 promoter. Mutation in the Sp-1 sites in EP4 altered the promoter activity and abolished sulindac sulfide effects. The inhibitory effect of sulindac sulfide on EP4 expression was reversed by PD98059, a mitogen-activated protein/extracellular signal-regulated kinase kinase-1/extracellular signal-regulated kinase inhibitor. Sp-1 phosphorylation was dependent on sulindac sulfide-induced Erk activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assay confirmed that Sp-1 phosphorylation decreases Sp-1 binding to DNA and leads to the suppression of EP4. Inhibition of cell growth on soft agar assay was found to be a highly complex process and seems to require not only the inhibition of cyclooxygenase activity but also increased expression of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-activated gene 1 and activating transcription factor 3 and suppression of EP4 expression. Our data suggest that the suppression of EP4 expression by sulindac sulfide represents a new mechanism for understanding the tumor suppressor activity.