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Raquel S Teixeira et al.
International journal of pharmaceutics, 474(1-2), 212-222 (2014-08-12)
The aim of this study is to investigate the efficacy of new, biocompatible, lysine-based surfactants as chemical permeation enhancers for two different local anesthetics, tetracaine and ropivacaine hydrochloride, topically administered. Results show that this class of surfactants strongly influences permeation...
Arfat Idrees et al.
Acta poloniae pharmaceutica, 71(2), 287-295 (2014-10-03)
This study was aimed to determine effects of penetration enhancers and plasticizers on drug release from rationally designed formulations of flurbiprofen based transdermal drug delivery system. Matrix type transdermal patches were formulated with ethyl cellulose (EC) as a polymer by...
Monice M Fiume et al.
International journal of toxicology, 31(5 Suppl), 245S-260S (2012-10-25)
Propylene glycol is an aliphatic alcohol that functions as a skin conditioning agent, viscosity decreasing agent, solvent, and fragrance ingredient in cosmetics. Tripropylene glycol functions as a humectant, antioxidant, and emulsion stabilizer. Polypropylene glycols (PPGs), including PPG-3, PPG-7, PPG-9, PPG-12...
Gai Ling Li et al.
Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 84(1-2), 49-57 (2002-10-26)
To achieve a therapeutical effect of the anti-Parkinson's drug R-apomorphine via iontophoresis delivery, enhancement strategies in vitro were explored using three structurally related enhancers, lauric acid (LA), dodecyltrimethylammonium bromide (DTAB) and Laureth-3 oxyethylene ether (C(12)EO(3)). Human stratum corneum and shed...
Jayamanti Pandit et al.
Journal of liposome research, 24(2), 163-169 (2014-02-01)
Miconazole nitrate is a widely used antifungal agent, but its use in topical formulations is not efficacious because deep seated fungal infections are difficult to treat with conventional topical formulation. Miconazole nitrate loaded ultraflexible liposomes have been prepared and their...
Systemic contact dermatitis due to intravenous Valium in a person sensitive to propylene glycol.
A A Fisher
Cutis, 55(6), 327-328 (1995-06-01)
Yasaman Damestani et al.
Lasers in surgery and medicine, 46(6), 488-498 (2014-05-28)
Optical clearing agents (OCAs) have shown promise for increasing the penetration depth of biomedical lasers by temporarily decreasing optical scattering within the skin. However, their translation to the clinic has been constrained by lack of practical means for effectively perfusing...
P D Yorgin et al.
American journal of kidney diseases : the official journal of the National Kidney Foundation, 30(1), 134-139 (1997-07-01)
Propylene glycol is a solvent that is used in many oral, injectable, and topical medications. Although uncommon, acute renal failure has been attributed to propylene glycol. The mechanism of propylene glycol-mediated renal injury is unknown. We report a case of...
Carla Caddeo et al.
International journal of pharmaceutics, 443(1-2), 128-136 (2013-01-10)
Diclofenac-loaded phospholipid vesicles, namely conventional liposomes, ethosomes and PEVs (penetration enhancer-containing vesicles) were developed and their efficacy in TPA (phorbol ester) induced skin inflammation was examined. Vesicles were made from a cheap and unpurified mixture of phospholipids and diclofenac sodium;...
Analysis of aldehydes in excipients used in liquid/semi-solid formulations by gas chromatography-negative chemical ionization mass spectrometry
Li Z, et al.
Journal of Chromatography A, 1160(1-2), 299-305 (2007)
Erin K Zinkhan et al.
Pediatric research, 76(5), 432-440 (2014-08-15)
Intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) increases the risk of adult-onset hypercholesterolemia. High-fat diet (HFD) consumption potentiates IUGR-induced increased cholesterol. Cholesterol is converted to bile acids by Cyp7a1 in preparation for excretion. We hypothesized that IUGR rats fed a HFD will have...
Luc A Cynober
Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 18(9), 761-766 (2002-09-26)
The plasma concentration of an amino acid (AA) is the result of its rates of appearance (Ra) in and disappearance (Rd) from plasma. As for most nutrients, AA Ra and Rd are tightly regulated and at the postabsorptive state Ra...
Haranath Kumar Vaddi et al.
Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin, 26(2), 220-228 (2003-02-11)
In this study, two terpenes with the same functional group; limonene oxide and pinene oxide were used at 5% w/v concentration in 50% v/v ethanol and 100% v/v propylene glycol (PG) to enhance the in vitro permeation of haloperidol (HP)...
Shiow-Fern Ng et al.
Drug development and industrial pharmacy, 40(11), 1538-1546 (2013-09-13)
Topical emollients are known to provide symptomatic relief for atopic dermatitis. In hospitals, wet-wrap therapy has been shown to benefit children with moderate-to-severe atopic dermatitis (AD), but the application of wet-wraps is tedious and time-consuming. Topical emollients have low residence...
Y Yoshida
[Hokkaido igaku zasshi] The Hokkaido journal of medical science, 60(2), 183-194 (1985-03-01)
Methionine is a sulfur-containing essential amino acid and there are optic isomers of L- and D-type. It has been known that there are two metabolic pathways in methionine metabolism-the transsulfuration and the transamination. The purposes of the present investigation are...
Lynda Uphouse
Behavioural brain research, 282, 95-102 (2015-01-17)
Regularly cycling Fischer female rats were treated with either a low (5mg/kg) or high (5mg/RAT; approximately 30mg/kg) dose of the antiprogestin, RU486, before the morning of proestrus or on the morning of proestrus. The emergence of sexual behavior after treatment...
Tausif Zar et al.
Seminars in dialysis, 20(3), 217-219 (2007-06-09)
Propylene glycol is a commonly used solvent for oral, intravenous, and topical pharmaceutical preparations. Although it is considered safe, large intravenous doses given over a short period of time can be toxic. Underlying renal insufficiency and hepatic dysfunction raise risk...
Jianli Wang et al.
Human brain mapping, 35(8), 3616-3624 (2013-12-05)
Human olfactory system is under-studied using fMRI compared with other sensory systems. Because the perception (intensity, threshold, and valence) and detection of odors are tightly involved with respiration, the subject's respiration pattern modulates and interacts with the experimental paradigm, which...
Hemant K Mishra et al.
Journal of leukocyte biology, 97(3), 447-454 (2014-11-22)
The chemokine receptor CXCR2 is expressed at high levels on circulating neutrophils and is critical for directing their migration to sites of inflammation. CXCR2 surface levels are rapidly modulated by 2 mechanisms-cell internalization and recycling upon ligand binding-and by a...
Tomoka Takatani-Nakase et al.
PloS one, 7(10), e47980-e47980 (2012-10-31)
Transcutaneous immunization (TCI) is a novel vaccination strategy, which is expected to have therapeutic applications. However, to develop effective TCI systems, a simple, non-invasive and safe transdermal formulation is required. This study developed a novel TCI system utilizing the co-administration...
J S LaKind et al.
Critical reviews in toxicology, 29(4), 331-365 (1999-08-18)
The purpose of this article is to review and interpret the scientific literature on the mammalian toxicity of ethylene glycol (EG) and propylene glycol (PG), with the goal of comparing the toxicity of the two chemicals. This type of review...
Stephen T Vito et al.
Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 281(2), 185-194 (2014-12-03)
Tetramethylenedisulfotetramine (TETS) is a potent convulsant poison for which there is currently no approved antidote. The convulsant action of TETS is thought to be mediated by inhibition of type A gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor (GABAAR) function. We, therefore, investigated the effects...
Benjawan Boonkaew et al.
Burns : journal of the International Society for Burn Injuries, 40(8), 1562-1569 (2014-04-29)
A novel burn wound hydrogel dressing has been previously developed which is composed of 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane sulfonic acid sodium salt with silver nanoparticles (silver AMPS). This study compared the cytotoxicity of this dressing to the commercially available silver products; Acticoat™, PolyMem...
Beatriz Clares et al.
International journal of pharmaceutics, 473(1-2), 591-598 (2014-08-08)
The aim of this study was to develop biocompatible lipid-based nanocarriers for retinyl palmitate (RP) to improve its skin delivery, photostability and biocompatibility, and to avoid undesirable topical side effects. RP loaded nanoemulsions (NEs), liposomes (LPs) and solid lipid nanoparticles...
Khaled Mohamed Hosny et al.
International journal of pharmaceutics, 475(1-2), 191-197 (2014-09-03)
Saquinavir mesylate (SM) is a protease inhibitor with activity against human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and is available in tablet form, which has three major problems. First, the drug undergoes extensive first pass metabolism. Second, the drug has a...
Guy Bar-Klein et al.
Epilepsia, 55(12), 1953-1958 (2014-11-08)
Organophosphates (OPs) are commonly used insecticides for agriculture and domestic purposes, but may also serve as nerve agents. Exposure to OPs result in overstimulation of the cholinergic system and lead to status epilepticus (SE), a life-threatening condition that is often...
Chi-Feng Hung et al.
International journal of pharmaceutics, 471(1-2), 135-145 (2014-05-27)
Intrinsic aging and photoaging modify skin structure and components, which subsequently change percutaneous absorption of topically applied permeants. The purpose of this study was to systematically evaluate drug/sunscreen permeation via young and senescent skin irradiated by ultraviolet (UV) light. Both...
R S Rajasenan et al.
Toxicology and applied pharmacology, 135(1), 89-99 (1995-11-01)
Engrafting components of human immune systems in severe combined immunodeficient (SCID) mice has been utilized to investigate the pathogenesis of several human autoimmune diseases and may provide a model for studying idiosyncratic drug toxicity. The purpose of this investigation was...
Nagsen Gautam et al.
Antimicrobial agents and chemotherapy, 58(12), 7510-7519 (2014-10-08)
The drug delivery platform for folic acid (FA)-coated nanoformulated ritonavir (RTV)-boosted atazanavir (FA-nanoATV/r) using poloxamer 407 was developed to enhance cell and tissue targeting for a range of antiretroviral drugs. Such formulations would serve to extend the drug half-life while...
S Okonogi et al.
Drug discoveries & therapeutics, 6(5), 249-255 (2012-12-12)
The aim of the present study was to enhance the cholinesterase inhibitory activity of Zingiber cassumunar (ZC) oil using a microemulsion (ME) technique. Pseudoternary phase diagrams of the oil, water, and surfactant/co-surfactant mixture were constructed using a water titration method....
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